December 29, 2016

YOKOHAMA: 横浜ベイブリッジ - Bay Bridge

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Yokohama Bay Bridge


Yokohama Bay Bridge at Sunset, Honmoku and Daikoku Pier, Naka-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa


横浜ベイブリッジ

横浜ベイブリッジ(よこはまベイブリッジ)は、1989年(平成元年)9月27日に開通した神奈川県横浜市にある長さ860m(中央支間長460m)の斜張橋(吊り橋)である。東京港方面と横浜港を結ぶ港湾物流の一端を担うことにより、都市部の渋滞を緩和する重要な輸送路である。

本牧埠頭A突堤(中区)と大黒埠頭(鶴見区)とを結んでおり、上層部は首都高速湾岸線で、下層部は国道357号となっている。下層部も含めて125cc以下の自動二輪車は通行できない。また、歩道が無いため徒歩で渡ることもできない。大黒ふ頭側には橋脚の道路下にある展望台までの遊歩道「横浜スカイウォーク」(有料)があり、大型客船の通過時などは迫力のある風景を見学することができたが、2010年(平成22年)9月に閉鎖された。上層部の制限速度は、開通当初は70km/hだったが現在は80km/hになっている。
建設の目的は、高度経済成長期によって悪化した横浜市街地における渋滞の解消である。設計は名港西大橋のデザイン案を、名称はサンフランシスコ・オークランド・ベイブリッジを参考にしたとされる。横浜市が、当時の建設省(現、国土交通省)に橋の建設を積極的に働きかけ、難工事の末に開通した。 完成時において日本最長の斜張橋(橋脚間の距離460mにおいて)であったことから、開通当初は故障以外の駐停車は禁じられている都市高速道路であるにもかかわらず、夜景見物目的の駐車車両が多く問題とされたこともあったが、現在はほとんど見かけることはない。また、故障以外の駐停車を防止するためのアナウンスが常に流れている。
上層部の開通後も高速通行料金の関係から、本牧 - 大黒間の移動においてもベイブリッジを避けて市内中心部の一般道へ迂回するコンテナ車両などが多かったため、地元住民や港湾関係者などから一般道建設の要望があり、2004年(平成16年)に下層部を通行するための一般道を開通させ、横浜港内における港湾関係車両の重要な移動経路としても用いられている。

Yokohama Bay Bridge

The Yokohama Bay Bridge (横浜ベイブリッジ Yokohama Bei Buridji?) is an 860-metre-long cable stayed bridge in Yokohama, Japan. Opened September 27, 1989, it crosses Tokyo Bay with a span of 460 metres (1,510 feet). The toll is ¥600. The bridge is part of the Bayshore Route of the Shuto Expressway.
wikipedia


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December 27, 2016

ENGLAND: The Queen's Walk

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The Queen's Walk on Sunday near London Eye, Lambeth, London



The Queen's Walk (South Bank)

The Queen's Walk is a promenade located on the southern bank of the River Thames in London, England, between Lambeth Bridge and Tower Bridge.

The creation of pedestrian access along the south bank of the Thames was seen as an integral part of the creation of the Jubilee Walkway to mark the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II in 1977. However, the last section was not established until the completion of construction of London Bridge City c.1990

In 1996, the Walk was recognised as a foundation for establishing the Thames Path national trail through London.

This is a convenient route of several miles for tourists to walk from the London Eye Ferris wheel past numerous attractions to Tower Bridge and the Tower of London.




The Queen's Walk
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ENGLAND



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December 18, 2016

ARIZONA: Sandstone Rock formations - NAVAJO NATION

Hazdistazi or "spiral rock arches"
Lower Antelope Canyon, Page, Arizona

砂岩の岩石形成
Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth by erosion
 from flash flooding over thousands of years.


Sandstone Rock formations

Antelope Canyon was formed by erosion of Navajo Sandstone, primarily due to flash flooding and secondarily due to other sub-aerial processes. Rainwater, especially during monsoon season, runs into the extensive basin above the slot canyon sections, picking up speed and sand as it rushes into the narrow passageways. Over time the passageways eroded away, making the corridors deeper and smoothing hard edges in such a way as to form characteristic 'flowing' shapes in the rock.

Flooding in the canyon still occurs. A flood occurred on October 30, 2006, that lasted 36 hours, and caused the Tribal Park Authorities to close Lower Antelope Canyon for five months.
wikipedia



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December 10, 2016

ARIZONA: Hazdistazi - NAVAJO NATION

Lower Antelope Canyon
Hazdistazi or "spiral rock arches" 


Sandstone Rock formations, Lower Antelope Canyon, Page, Arizona - 砂岩の岩石形成



アンテロープ・キャニオン [Antelope Canyon]
アンテロープ・キャニオン(英名:Antelope Canyon)は、アメリカ合衆国アリゾナ州ページ(Page, Arizona)近郊の、ナバホ族の土地に位置する渓谷。アメリカ南西部では、最も写真撮影され多くの人々が訪れるスロット・キャニオン(幅の狭い渓谷)である。アンテロープ・キャニオンは2つの岩層から成り、個々にアッパー・アンテロープ・キャニオンとロウワー・アンテロープ・キャニオンと名づけられている。

アンテロープ・キャニオンは他のスロット・キャニオンと同じく、周囲の砂岩(ここではナバホ砂岩)の侵食によりできた何百年にも及ぶ地層を形成しており、これは主として鉄砲水のほか、風成の侵食によるものである。特にモンスーンの時期に降る雨水はアンテロープ・キャニオンの一部である谷間を流れ、より狭い通路を流れるにつれ水は加速して砂を拾いあげる。その後長い時間をかけて通路が侵食されると、狭い通路は更に広くなり岩の鋭さはより滑らかにされて、岩の「流れる」ような特徴を形作る。こうして独特の岩の通路が、長い時間をかけ完成された。

ロウワー・アンテロープ・キャニオン [Lower Antelope Canyon]
ナバホの言葉で「螺旋の岩石アーチ」という意味である、ハスデトワジ(Hasdeztwazi)の別名もあるロウワー・アンテロープ・キャニオンは、アッパー・アンテロープ・キャニオンから数キロ離れた場所に位置する。鉄製の階段が取り付けられる以前は、キャニオンを訪れるために一定の場所をロープやはしごで登らなくてはならなかった。階段が設置されている現在も、長く狭い場所も多い上、全体を通して足場が悪いなどアッパー・アンテロープ・キャニオンと比べて散策が困難である。こうした制限された状態にあるものの、ロウアー・アンテロープ・キャニオンはかなりの数の写真家を惹きつけているが、アッパー・アンテロープ・キャニオンより単なる観光目的で訪れる旅行者は少ない。

Antelope Canyon  [アンテロープ・キャニオン]
Antelope Canyon is a slot canyon in the American Southwest. It is located on Navajo land east of Page, Arizona. Antelope Canyon includes two separate, scenic slot canyon sections, referred to individually as "Upper Antelope Canyon" or "The Crack"; and "Antelope Canyon" or "The Corkscrew".
The Navajo name for Upper Antelope Canyon is Tsé bighánílíní, which means "the place where water runs through rocks." Lower Antelope Canyon is Hazdistazí (advertised as "Hasdestwazi" by the Navajo Parks and Recreation Department), or "spiral rock arches." Both are located within the LeChee Chapter of the Navajo Nation.

Lower Antelope Canyon  [ロウワー・アンテロープ・キャニオン]
Lower Antelope Canyon, called Hazdistazí, or "spiral rock arches" by the Navajo Indians, are located a few miles away. Prior to the installation of metal stairways, visiting the canyon required climbing along pre-installed ladders in certain areas. Even following the installation of stairways, it is a more difficult hike than Upper Antelope. It is longer, narrower in spots, and even footing is not available in all areas. At the end, the climb out requires several flights of stairs.
Despite these limitations, Lower Antelope Canyon draws a considerable number of photographers, though casual sightseers are much less common there than in Upper.
The lower canyon is in the shape of a "V" and shallower than the Upper Antelope. Lighting is better in the early hours and late morning.




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December 1, 2016

ARIZONA: Slot Canyon - Lower Antelope Canyon

Hazdistazí or "spiral rock arches"


Colors of Lower Antelope Canyon, Navajo Tribal Park, Page, Arizona



Lower Antelope Canyon

Lower Antelope Canyon, called Hazdistazí, or "spiral rock arches" by the Navajo Indians, are located a few miles away. Prior to the installation of metal stairways, visiting the canyon required climbing along pre-installed ladders in certain areas. Even following the installation of stairways, it is a more difficult hike than Upper Antelope. It is longer, narrower in spots, and even footing is not available in all areas. At the end, the climb out requires several flights of stairs.

Despite these limitations, Lower Antelope Canyon draws a considerable number of photographers, though casual sightseers are much less common there than in Upper.

The lower canyon is in the shape of a "V" and shallower than the Upper Antelope. Lighting is better in the early hours and late morning.

Flash flood danger

Inside Lower Antelope Canyon
Antelope Canyon is visited exclusively through guided tours, in part because rains during monsoon season can quickly flood the canyon. Rain does not have to fall on or near the Antelope Canyon slots for flash floods to whip through, as rain falling dozens of miles away 'upstream' of the canyons can funnel into them with little prior notice. On August 12, 1997, eleven tourists, including seven from France, one from the United Kingdom, one from Sweden and two from the United States, were killed in Lower Antelope Canyon by a flash flood. Very little rain fell at the site that day, but an earlier thunderstorm had dumped a large amount of water into the canyon basin, 7 miles (11 km) upstream. The lone survivor of the flood was tour guide Francisco "Pancho" Quintana, who had prior swift-water training. At the time, the ladder system consisted of amateur-built wood ladders that were swept away by the flash flood. Today, ladder systems have been bolted in place, and deployable cargo nets are installed at the top of the canyon. At the fee booth, a NOAA Weather Radio from the National Weather Service and an alarm horn are stationed.

Despite improved warning and safety systems, the risks of injuries from flash floods still exist. On July 30, 2010, several tourists were stranded on a ledge when two flash floods occurred at the Upper Antelope Canyon. Some of them were rescued and some had to wait for the flood waters to recede. There were reports that a woman and her 9-year-old son were injured as they were washed away downstream, but no fatalities were reported.



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