February 28, 2016

中華人民共和國香港特別行政區 : Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China - The British Dependent Territory of Hong Kong (1959-1997)


URBAN-STREET VIGNETTES

Classic Images
photographs by aQuI_aki YAMADA - HK 1986



A view of Hong Kong Island from The Star Ferry - Hong Kong, 1986


Hong Kong

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hong Kong - the Star Ferry (present)
Wikipedia
Hong Kong (香港; "Fragrant Harbour"), traditionally Hongkong, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the southern coast of China at the Pearl River Estuary and the South China Sea. Hong Kong is known for its skyline and deep natural harbour. It has an area of 1104 km2 (426 sq mi) and shares its northern border with the Guangdong Province of Mainland China. Home to around 7.2 million Hongkongers of various nationalities, Hong Kong is one of the world's most densely populated regions.

After the First Opium War (1839–42), Hong Kong became a British colony with the perpetual cession of Hong Kong Island, followed by Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. After it was occupied by Japan in the Second World War (1941–45), the British resumed control until 30 June 1997. As a result of negotiations between China and Britain, Hong Kong was transferred to the People's Republic of China under the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration. The territory became China's special administrative region with a high degree of autonomy on 1 July 1997 under the principle of one country, two systems.

In the late 1970s, Hong Kong became a major entrepôt in Asia-Pacific. The territory has developed into a major global trade hub and financial centre, and is regarded as a world city. The 45th-largest economy in the world, Hong Kong ranks top 10 in GDP (PPP) per capita, but also has the most severe income inequality among advanced economies. Hong Kong is one of the three most important financial centres alongside New York and London. The territory has a high Human Development Index and is ranked highly in the Global Competitiveness Report. It has been named the freest market economy by the Heritage Foundation Index of Economic Freedom. The service economy, characterised by low taxation and free trade, has been regarded as one of the world's most laissez-faire economic policies, and the currency, the Hong Kong dollar, is the 13th most traded currency in the world. The territory has the most severe income inequality among advanced economies. Hong Kong is a member of APEC, ADB, IMF, BIS, WTO, FIFA, and International Olympic Committee, as Hong Kong Basic Law authorizes the territory to develop relations with foreign states on its own in appropriate fields, including the economic, trade, financial and monetary, shipping, communications, tourism, cultural and sports fields.

Limited land created a dense infrastructure and the territory became a centre of modern architecture, and one of the world's most vertical cities. Hong Kong has a highly developed public transportation network covering 90 per cent of the population, the highest in the world, and relies on mass transit by road or rail. Air pollution remains a serious problem. Loose emissions standards have resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates. Nevertheless, Hongkongers enjoy the world's longest or second longest life expectancies.


People on Causeway Bay Hong Kong  - 1986


Name
The name "Hong Kong" is an approximate phonetic rendering of the pronunciation of the spoken Cantonese or Hakka name 香港, meaning "Fragrant Harbour". Before 1842, the name referred to a small inlet—now Aberdeen Harbour (香港仔 hoeng1gong2 zai2, or Hiong1gong3zai3[9] in Hong Kong Hakka, literally means "Little Hong Kong")—between Aberdeen Island and the south side of Hong Kong Island, which was one of the first points of contact between British sailors and local fishermen.

The reference to fragrance may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's fresh water estuarine influx of the Pearl River, or to the incense from factories, lining the coast to the north of Kowloon, which was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export before the development of the Victoria Harbour.

In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking was signed and the name, Hong Kong, was first recorded on official documents to encompass the entirety of the island.

The name had often been written as the single word Hongkong until the government adopted the current form in 1926. Nevertheless, a number of century-old institutions still retain the single-word form, such as the Hongkong Post, Hongkong Electric and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation.

The full official name, after 1997, is "Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China". This is the official title as mentioned in the Hong Kong Basic Law and the Hong Kong Government's website; however, "Hong Kong Special Administrative Region" and "Hong Kong" are widely accepted.

Hong Kong has carried many nicknames: the most famous among those is the "Pearl of the Orient", which reflected the impressive night-view of the city's light decorations on the skyscrapers along both sides of the Victoria Harbour. The territory is also known as "Asia's World City".


People at the bus stop, East Point Rd, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong - 1986


History
Main articles: History of Hong Kong and History of China

Pre-British Hong Kong
Main articles: Prehistoric Hong Kong and History of Hong Kong under Imperial China

British Crown Colony: 1842-1941
Main articles: British Hong Kong and History of Hong Kong (1800s–1930s)

Japanese occupation: 1941-45
Main article: Japanese occupation of Hong Kong

Resumption of British rule and Industrialisation: 1945-97
Main articles: British Hong Kong, 1950s in Hong Kong, 1960s in Hong Kong, 1970s in Hong Kong, 1980s in Hong Kong and 1990s in Hong Kong


Monument Valley in Hong Kong, Percival St, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong - 1986


Hong Kong's population recovered quickly after the war, as a wave of skilled migrants from China flooded in for refuge from the Chinese Civil War. When the Communists gained control of mainland China in 1949, even more skilled migrants fled across the open border for fear of persecution. Many newcomers, especially those who had been based in the major port cities of Shanghai and Guangzhou, established corporations and small- to medium-sized businesses and shifted their base operations to British Hong Kong. The Chinese Communist Party's establishment of a socialist state in China on 1 October 1949 caused the British colonial government to reconsider Hong Kong's open border to mainland China. In 1951, a boundary zone was demarked as a buffer zone against potential military attacks from communist China. Border posts in the north of Hong Kong began operation in 1953 to regulate the movement of people and goods into and out of British Hong Kong.

In the 1950s, Hong Kong became the first of the Four Asian Tiger economies under rapid industrialisation driven by textile exports, manufacturing industries and re-exports of goods to China. As the population grew, with labour costs remaining low, living standards began to rise steadily. The construction of the Shek Kip Mei Estate in 1953 marked the beginning of the public housing estate programme to provide shelter for the less privileged and to cope with the influx of immigrants.

Under Sir Murray MacLehose, 25th Governor of Hong Kong (1971–82), a series of reforms improved the public services, environment, housing, welfare, education and infrastructure of Hong Kong. MacLehose was British Hong Kong's longest-serving governor and, by the end of his tenure, had become one of the most popular and well-known figures in the Crown Colony. MacLehose laid the foundation for Hong Kong to establish itself as a key global city in the 1980s and early 1990s.

To resolve traffic congestion and to provide a more reliable means of crossing the Victoria Harbour, a rapid transit railway system (metro), the MTR, was planned from the 1970s onwards. The Island Line (Hong Kong Island), Kwun Tong Line (Kowloon Peninsula and East Kowloon) and Tsuen Wan Line (Kowloon and urban New Territories) opened in the early 1980s.

Hong Kong's competitiveness in manufacturing gradually declined due to rising labour and property costs, as well as new development in southern China under the Open Door Policy introduced in 1978 which opened up China to foreign business. Nevertheless, towards the early 1990s, Hong Kong had established itself as a global financial centre along with London and New York, a regional hub for logistics and freight, one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia and the world's exemplar of Laissez-faire market policy.


A vehicle and a bike, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong - 1986





(present)
How are you doing?

Well, taking a photo at my first time in 1986 in Hong Kong with  Nikon FE2.

I worked with 4 Philippine engineers at the American bank in Hong Kong when the system changed over from Tokyo to Hong Kong.

I stayed there to work this project for 2 weeks, though. It kept me all busy. So I went out to take a photo in town on the weekends.

That was the most favorite moment during my stay in Hong Kong.  Anyway, I still miss Hong Kong and it happened in 1986.

aQuI_aki YAMADA





A farmer in Hong Kong, Tun Yu Road, New Territories, Hong Kong - 1986


香 港

h o n g k o n g

Nikon FE2

Joe Henderson
Joe Henderson - Invitation "Tetragon" (jazz)

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