February 28, 2016

中華人民共和國香港特別行政區 : Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China - The British Dependent Territory of Hong Kong (1959-1997)


URBAN-STREET VIGNETTES

Classic Images
photographs by aQuI_aki YAMADA - HK 1986



A view of Hong Kong Island from The Star Ferry - Hong Kong, 1986


Hong Kong

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hong Kong - the Star Ferry (present)
Wikipedia
Hong Kong (香港; "Fragrant Harbour"), traditionally Hongkong, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the southern coast of China at the Pearl River Estuary and the South China Sea. Hong Kong is known for its skyline and deep natural harbour. It has an area of 1104 km2 (426 sq mi) and shares its northern border with the Guangdong Province of Mainland China. Home to around 7.2 million Hongkongers of various nationalities, Hong Kong is one of the world's most densely populated regions.

After the First Opium War (1839–42), Hong Kong became a British colony with the perpetual cession of Hong Kong Island, followed by Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. After it was occupied by Japan in the Second World War (1941–45), the British resumed control until 30 June 1997. As a result of negotiations between China and Britain, Hong Kong was transferred to the People's Republic of China under the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration. The territory became China's special administrative region with a high degree of autonomy on 1 July 1997 under the principle of one country, two systems.

In the late 1970s, Hong Kong became a major entrepôt in Asia-Pacific. The territory has developed into a major global trade hub and financial centre, and is regarded as a world city. The 45th-largest economy in the world, Hong Kong ranks top 10 in GDP (PPP) per capita, but also has the most severe income inequality among advanced economies. Hong Kong is one of the three most important financial centres alongside New York and London. The territory has a high Human Development Index and is ranked highly in the Global Competitiveness Report. It has been named the freest market economy by the Heritage Foundation Index of Economic Freedom. The service economy, characterised by low taxation and free trade, has been regarded as one of the world's most laissez-faire economic policies, and the currency, the Hong Kong dollar, is the 13th most traded currency in the world. The territory has the most severe income inequality among advanced economies. Hong Kong is a member of APEC, ADB, IMF, BIS, WTO, FIFA, and International Olympic Committee, as Hong Kong Basic Law authorizes the territory to develop relations with foreign states on its own in appropriate fields, including the economic, trade, financial and monetary, shipping, communications, tourism, cultural and sports fields.

Limited land created a dense infrastructure and the territory became a centre of modern architecture, and one of the world's most vertical cities. Hong Kong has a highly developed public transportation network covering 90 per cent of the population, the highest in the world, and relies on mass transit by road or rail. Air pollution remains a serious problem. Loose emissions standards have resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates. Nevertheless, Hongkongers enjoy the world's longest or second longest life expectancies.


People on Causeway Bay Hong Kong  - 1986


Name
The name "Hong Kong" is an approximate phonetic rendering of the pronunciation of the spoken Cantonese or Hakka name 香港, meaning "Fragrant Harbour". Before 1842, the name referred to a small inlet—now Aberdeen Harbour (香港仔 hoeng1gong2 zai2, or Hiong1gong3zai3[9] in Hong Kong Hakka, literally means "Little Hong Kong")—between Aberdeen Island and the south side of Hong Kong Island, which was one of the first points of contact between British sailors and local fishermen.

The reference to fragrance may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's fresh water estuarine influx of the Pearl River, or to the incense from factories, lining the coast to the north of Kowloon, which was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export before the development of the Victoria Harbour.

In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking was signed and the name, Hong Kong, was first recorded on official documents to encompass the entirety of the island.

The name had often been written as the single word Hongkong until the government adopted the current form in 1926. Nevertheless, a number of century-old institutions still retain the single-word form, such as the Hongkong Post, Hongkong Electric and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation.

The full official name, after 1997, is "Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China". This is the official title as mentioned in the Hong Kong Basic Law and the Hong Kong Government's website; however, "Hong Kong Special Administrative Region" and "Hong Kong" are widely accepted.

Hong Kong has carried many nicknames: the most famous among those is the "Pearl of the Orient", which reflected the impressive night-view of the city's light decorations on the skyscrapers along both sides of the Victoria Harbour. The territory is also known as "Asia's World City".


People at the bus stop, East Point Rd, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong - 1986


History
Main articles: History of Hong Kong and History of China

Pre-British Hong Kong
Main articles: Prehistoric Hong Kong and History of Hong Kong under Imperial China

British Crown Colony: 1842-1941
Main articles: British Hong Kong and History of Hong Kong (1800s–1930s)

Japanese occupation: 1941-45
Main article: Japanese occupation of Hong Kong

Resumption of British rule and Industrialisation: 1945-97
Main articles: British Hong Kong, 1950s in Hong Kong, 1960s in Hong Kong, 1970s in Hong Kong, 1980s in Hong Kong and 1990s in Hong Kong


Monument Valley in Hong Kong, Percival St, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong - 1986


Hong Kong's population recovered quickly after the war, as a wave of skilled migrants from China flooded in for refuge from the Chinese Civil War. When the Communists gained control of mainland China in 1949, even more skilled migrants fled across the open border for fear of persecution. Many newcomers, especially those who had been based in the major port cities of Shanghai and Guangzhou, established corporations and small- to medium-sized businesses and shifted their base operations to British Hong Kong. The Chinese Communist Party's establishment of a socialist state in China on 1 October 1949 caused the British colonial government to reconsider Hong Kong's open border to mainland China. In 1951, a boundary zone was demarked as a buffer zone against potential military attacks from communist China. Border posts in the north of Hong Kong began operation in 1953 to regulate the movement of people and goods into and out of British Hong Kong.

In the 1950s, Hong Kong became the first of the Four Asian Tiger economies under rapid industrialisation driven by textile exports, manufacturing industries and re-exports of goods to China. As the population grew, with labour costs remaining low, living standards began to rise steadily. The construction of the Shek Kip Mei Estate in 1953 marked the beginning of the public housing estate programme to provide shelter for the less privileged and to cope with the influx of immigrants.

Under Sir Murray MacLehose, 25th Governor of Hong Kong (1971–82), a series of reforms improved the public services, environment, housing, welfare, education and infrastructure of Hong Kong. MacLehose was British Hong Kong's longest-serving governor and, by the end of his tenure, had become one of the most popular and well-known figures in the Crown Colony. MacLehose laid the foundation for Hong Kong to establish itself as a key global city in the 1980s and early 1990s.

To resolve traffic congestion and to provide a more reliable means of crossing the Victoria Harbour, a rapid transit railway system (metro), the MTR, was planned from the 1970s onwards. The Island Line (Hong Kong Island), Kwun Tong Line (Kowloon Peninsula and East Kowloon) and Tsuen Wan Line (Kowloon and urban New Territories) opened in the early 1980s.

Hong Kong's competitiveness in manufacturing gradually declined due to rising labour and property costs, as well as new development in southern China under the Open Door Policy introduced in 1978 which opened up China to foreign business. Nevertheless, towards the early 1990s, Hong Kong had established itself as a global financial centre along with London and New York, a regional hub for logistics and freight, one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia and the world's exemplar of Laissez-faire market policy.


A vehicle and a bike, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong - 1986





(present)
How are you doing?

Well, taking a photo at my first time in 1986 in Hong Kong with  Nikon FE2.

I worked with 4 Philippine engineers at the American bank in Hong Kong when the system changed over from Tokyo to Hong Kong.

I stayed there to work this project for 2 weeks, though. It kept me all busy. So I went out to take a photo in town on the weekends.

That was the most favorite moment during my stay in Hong Kong.  Anyway, I still miss Hong Kong and it happened in 1986.

aQuI_aki YAMADA





A farmer in Hong Kong, Tun Yu Road, New Territories, Hong Kong - 1986


香 港

h o n g k o n g

Nikon FE2

Joe Henderson
Joe Henderson - Invitation "Tetragon" (jazz)

aQuI_AKI YAMADA :  Classic and Modern Images 

ApplePie

Copyright (C) aQuI_AKI YAMADA. All Rights Reserved.

    ブログランキング・にほんブロ

グ村へ
Vote me, won't you?

February 22, 2016

NEW YORK : THE VILLAGE VANGUARD - NY

URBAN-STREET VIGNETTES

Seventh Avenue South in Greenwich Village


The Village Vanguard  New York



BRUCE BARTH
LIVE AT The Village Vanguard 

The artist tonight is Bruce Barth.
Who not?  I'll be there.  Awesome!




Village Vanguard

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Village Vanguard is a jazz club located at Seventh Avenue South in Greenwich Village, New York City. The club was opened on February 22, 1935, by Max Gordon. At first, it featured many forms of music, such as folk music and beat poetry, but it switched to an all-jazz format in 1957.


n e w  y o r k

Nikon F3

Bruce Barth
Bruce Barth - Moon Shadows (jazz)

aQuI_AKI YAMADA : Classic and Modern Images

ApplePie

Copyright (C) aQuI_AKI YAMADA. All Rights Reserved.

Pochitto & Click!
    ブログランキング・にほんブログ村へ
Vote me, won't you?

February 15, 2016

MONTANA : Mount Grinnell - Glacier National Park


Mount Grinnell
M O N T A N A
treasure State

Mount Grinnell

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mount Grinnell is a peak located in the heart of Glacier National Park in the U.S. state of Montana near Mount Gould and Mount Wilbur. It is named after George Bird Grinnell. From the Many Glacier Hotel on Swiftcurrent Lake the "false peak" of Grinnell Point can be seen.


Sunrise at Mt. Grinnell and Swiftcurrent Lake, Glacier National Park, Montana.

m o n t a n a 

Nikon F3

ART PEPPER

ART PEPPER - The Summer Knows "The Trip" (jazz)

aQuI_AKI YAMADA :  Classic and Modern Images 

ApplePie

Copyright (C) aQuI_AKI YAMADA. All Rights Reserved.

    ブログランキング・にほんブロ

グ村へ
Vote me, won't you?

February 6, 2016

WYOMING : People on Grand Prismatic Spring, Y.N.P.

Grand Prismatic Spring



People follow boardwalk at Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming


Yellowstone National Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Landscape - Yellowstone National Park

With half of the earth's geothermal features, Yellowstone holds the planet's most diverse and intact collection of geysers, hot springs, mudpots, and fumaroles. Its more than 300 geysers make up two thirds of all those found on earth. Combine this with more than 10,000 thermal features comprised of brilliantly colored hot springs, bubbling mudpots, and steaming fumaroles, and you have a place like no other.

Yellowstone's hydrothermal features would not exist without the underlying magma body that releases tremendous heat. They also depend on sources of water, such as from the mountains surrounding the Yellowstone Plateau. There, snow and rain slowly percolate through layers of permeable rock riddled with cracks. Some of this cold water meets hot brine directly heated by the shallow magma body. The water's temperature rises well above the boiling point but the water remains in a liquid state due to the great pressure and weight of the overlying water. The result is superheated water with temperatures exceeding 400 ° F.

The superheated water is less dense than the colder, heavier water sinking around it. This creates convection currents that allow the lighter, more buoyant, superheated water to begin its journey back to the surface following the cracks and weak areas through rhyolitic lava flows. This upward path is the natural "plumbing" system of the park's hydrothermal features. Once it reaches the surface, the various colors of the pools are due to different types of bacteria growing in different temperatures.

Climate - Yellowstone National Park

The weather in Yellowstone National Park can change very rapidly from sunny and warm to cold and rainy, so it's important to bring along extra layers of clothing which can be used as needed.

Summer: Daytime temperatures are often in the 70s (25°C) and occasionally in the 80s (30°C) in lower elevations. Nights are usually cool and temperatures may drop below freezing at higher elevations. Thunderstorms are common in the afternoons.
Winter: Temperatures often range from zero to 20°F(-20°C to -5°C) throughout the day. Sub-zero temperatures over-night are common. The record low temperature is -66F (-54°C). Snowfall is highly variable. While the average is 150 inches per year, it is not uncommon for higher elevations to get twice that amount.
Spring & Fall: Daytime temperatures range from the 30s to the 60s (0 to 20°C) with overnight lows in the teens to single digits (-5 to -20°C). Snow is common in the Spring and Fall with regular accumulations of 12" in a 24 hour period. At any time of year, be prepared for sudden changes. Unpredictability, more than anything else, characterizes Yellowstone’s weather. Always be equipped with a wide range of clothing options. Be sure to bring a warm jacket and rain gear even in the summer.


w y o m i n g

Nikon F3

Giovanni Mirabassi Trio
Giovanni Mirabassi Trio - Just one of those things (jazz)

aQuI_AKI YAMADA :  Classic and Modern Images 

ApplePie

Copyright (C) aQuI_AKI YAMADA. All Rights Reserved.

Vote me, won't you?